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Javascript Hoisting

Hoisting is a behavior in JavaScript where variable and function declarations are moved to the top of their containing scope. This means that you can use variables and functions before they are declared in your code. However, it’s important to note that only the declarations are hoisted, not the initializations.

Here’s an example to illustrate hoisting:
It’s essential to understand that hoisting applies differently to variable declarations (var) and function declarations.
Variable Hoisting:
Javascript
console.log(a); // Outputs: undefined
var a = 10;
console.log(a); // Outputs: 10
Function Hoisting:
However, it’s important to note that the hoisting behavior doesn’t occur the same way with let function hoisting.
const declarations:
With let and const, the hoisting only includes the declaration itself, not the initialization. Therefore, trying to access the variable before its declaration results in a Reference Error.

In summary, while hoisting allows you to use variables and function declarations before their actual placement in the code, it’s a good practice to declare and initialize your variables at the top of their containing scope to avoid unexpected behaviors.

Let’s continue with some more details on function hoisting and how it can behave differently compared to variable hoisting.
Function Expression and Hoisting:
// This results in an error
myFunction(); // TypeError: myFunction is not a function

var myFunction = function() {
console.log(“Function Expression”);
};

In the example above, the function are expression assigned to myFunction is not hoisted to the top. Therefore, attempting to call myFunction() before the assignment results in a TypeError.
Hoisting in Different Scopes:
Hoisting also behaves differently in different scopes. When a variable is declared inside a function, it is hoisted to the top of that function’s scope:
Hoisting in the Global Scope:
Variables declared with var in the global scope become properties of the global object (e.g., window in a browser environment). Accessing them before the declaration results in a ReferenceError

This behavior helps avoid the common issue of accessing variables before their declaration and promotes more predictable code.

In summary, while hoisting can be a useful feature in JavaScript, it’s crucial to understand its nuances, especially with different types of declarations and scopes.

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